Typography is obviously a way of ordered and distinct writing style undergoing a continuous evolution until the present modern age. At the beginning of civilization, the human race looked for lots of ways to give their feelings, ideas, and emotion into a written shape. They became hardly successful but their efforts never went vain. Hierography, unlike calligraphy, was the initial success of them. This form, created by the old Egyptian civilization was not actually a written document rather a pictorial presentation to express their emotions and ideas. The term ‘Typology’ originated from the Gree roots ‘Typos’ meaning form or impression. This term, in fact, refers to the concept of printing. The uneven spacing was found in Mesopotamian cites, Urk and Larsa. Then the rulers of Mesopotamian would use punches and dies to make a seal or currency. Thus they intended to keep a regime time in the history of world civilization. Later in China movable typography was introduced by Shen in 990-1050BC. But those were not sustainable for being their flexibility as they were made of ceramic materials and clay. The movable typography was manufactured in Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty at approximately 1230 AD. At last lead-based movable type along with mechanical printings was designed by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439. During the mid of 1980s personal computers such as the Macintosh allowed the designer to create typefaces digitally using commercial graphic software-typeface, point, sizes, line, length, spacing and so on.
Typography indicates literally a style or appearance of text, and artwork with text. A writer or web designer opts to use typography to bring out his/ her imagination. Using of different typefaces and fonts, he intends to picture his/her feelings in texts. It is amazing that typography has changed the printing and publishing era for its persistent innovations. Modern publication enjoys a number of font and designs through it. It is massively used in every sphere of life formal and informal situation. We require it in book printing, web designing, everyday life, street sign, food packaging or any other projects where it needs a textual presentation indeed. To have a throughout insight of typology we must have a clear understanding of itself. Obviously it is a great tool for writing and presenting something vividly.
The things one supposed to know if one likes to have a holistic idea about typography:
- Typeface: The entire way of presenting the letters in the text is known to be typeface. It is a design or looks under the number of letters you have.
- Font: It refers to a style to put together the words and letters in a particular shape.
- Leading: The space between lines of also known as the line spacing. For instance, given a type size of 12 points and a distance between baselines of 14 points; the leading would be 3 points-that means there is a distance of 3 points from the bottom of the high line of type to the top of the low line of type.
- Kerning: Space between specific characters. Kerning is such a process by which space between the characters is adjusted. This kerning can be determined by customization as per the user’s demand.
- Tracking: This technique is followed to make an artistic view of the letter, is also known to be character spacing.
- Hierarchy: To draw the reader’s attention to particular lines or titles, the designer uses the hierarchy technique. It indicates to the most prominent topic or line. This technique is used to focus on the topic to be read first.
- Baselines: It is an imaginary line upon which a line rests. The capital letters are placed on baseline except for J & Q.
- Stroke: Any liner element of a letter to be known as stroke, used to give shape or look of a particular letter.
- Stem: The main vertical stroke is known to be the stem.
- Stress: Thick to the thin transition of a stroke in a letter.
- Foot: Bottom of Stem rest on the baseline.
- Arm: Horizontal stroke, not connected to stem.
- Ascended: Rise above Te x-height.
- Descender: Extended below the baseline.
- Shoulder: Curved stroke attached to the stem.
- Leg: Short stroke open ends of the letter.
The selection of typefaces depends on the projects someone is working on and his intention of presentation of that project. Some of the common typefaces are given below with short details.
- Serif Typeface: This is a classic look typeface, good for the traditional project like HTML template, PSD template, WordPress Theme and also common in print publications, like magazines and newspapers that contain huge amounts of text. Serf fonts have little strokes attached at the end of the letters. Serif typeface face has three versions: old style-it diagonal stress, bracketed serif, and minimal contrast are some characteristics of the old style. The transitional- this font has a vertical stroke, vertical strokes, and more pronounced contrast. The modern font includes some more features of little or no bracketing on the serifs, vertical axis or curved strokes.
- Sans Serif Typeface: Sans is a French word, it refers to without or void of serf-it does not have extra stoke. It is clean and vivid to look at. It is used in brochures, reports and in any kind of short text-based article. It is hugely used in making a web page.
- Script Typeface: It is like handwriting with the stroke of fluid. It ranges from formal to very casual writing. It is suitable for display use. The formal script characterizes flowing loops and connected letterforms. Whereas casual scripts feature a brush-like appearance with stronger stoke. Calligraphic, blackletter, handwriting are some forms of scripts typeface.
- Display Typeface: It is special for decorative manner. So it appears in various ways. It covers both practical and novelty fonts suitable for headlines and titles.
- Monospaced: In this typeface, every letter takes the same amount of horizontal space on the page or screen.
- Futura Typeface: Futura typeface, liked for writing web page as well as documentary presentation.
- Helvetica: One of the most popular typeface. It the greatest typeface that has ever been invented.
Typeface Vs Font
It is usually confusing to figure out typeface and font, especially the new web designers and writers use them interchangeably. They hardly distinguish them. One can separate the two ideas by using his/her ready wit. The typeface is an umbrella word under which many fonts lie. In other words, it is like a musical album that contains some song tracks. Whereas the fonts are the individual contents of a typeface. Every element of a certain typeface is the font. When a writer or web designer choose a typeface he may have access to all the fonts belonging to it. As A web designer can use Futura medium, Futura medium oblique, Futura condensed medium, Futura bold, Futura condensed bold, Futura extra bold and so on, when he uses Futura typeface in his text writing.
Some tips for Designers:
- Must have a font family.
- Use a few fonts, visual typography uses a limited number of font
- Families less is more.
- Respect font integrity never should distort the shape of the natural dimension of a font.